Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi – Back from Exile
· The word burden, or oracle, refers to a pronouncement of judgment
· 9:1-9:8 What are the prominent things mentioned? Cities! Alexander the Great? Imagine what the approach of Alexander must have been like. (Granicus, Issus) with all those reports coming in, Jews were very likely afraid. But God says not to worry. And Alexander left Israel alone. (Did Alexander see the Book of Daniel?) v. 8b refers to the end times though, as Israel was overrun numerous times since
· 9:9 Clearly refers to Christ. But note contrast between the mighty exploits of Alexander, the likes of which the world had never seen, and a king riding on a lowly donkey (not a conqueror)
· 9:10-9:17 v. 10 speaks of peace, perhaps the reign of Christ on Earth? v. 11 perhaps promises Jews still in Exile will return. v. 13-15 speak of Jews defeating Greeks (see little horn of Dan 8)
· 10:1-2 v.2 is the key, a picture of false teachers and "no shepherd". Probably referring to Israel and the Diaspora, between Christ's First and Second Coming
· 10:3-4 speaks of the Lord rescuing Judah from false shepherds, names represent Christ's strength and stability, refers to Christ's Second Coming
· 10:5-7 v. 5 refers to battle in v. 3, and v. 6-7 describe the blessings that will come to Israel, including a united kingdom. (Ezekiel also prophesied about this in Ezek. 37:15-23) Note the reference to Ephraim, or northern kingdom. We haven't talked much about the north, but they were taken into captivity 100 years before Judah!
· 10:8-12 gathering the Jews back to Israel, extended description of Israel's restoration. Chapter 10 then gives a panoramic history from the Jewish rejection of Christ to their worship of Him
· 11:1-3 This chapter reverts back to Israel's troubles before Christ's Second Coming. This paragraph describes the effect of troubles and struggles at that time
· 11:4-14 This paragraph describes the cause, and the clue to this section is in v. 12-13. We're talking about Jews rejecting Christ in this passage. Favor refers to God's ties to Israel, His protection. Union refers to ties within the nation, unity. In v. 7, they detested God, so Favor was broken. In v. 12 Messiah sought to reveal the depth of Israel's rejection, so he asked for their evaluation of his labors, what did they think he was worth. (Answer? See Exod. 21:32) This passage was fulfilled in Matt. 27:3-9 (Why does it say "spoken by Jeremiah?) In v. 14, Union was broken. Indeed by A.D. 70, the Jewish rebellion was growing stronger, Rome moved to squelch it, and the Jews were squabbling amongst themselves, which weakened them.
· 11:15-17 In a sense, Israel rejected the Good Shepherd and accepted the False Shepherd. This passage talks about a False Shepherd ruling Israel. It might refer to the countless wicked/pagan rulers who have tormented Israel over the centuries, culminating in the Antichrist, just before Christ's Second Coming
For next week, read Zechariah 12-14
(previous outlines are available at http://www.jeffkouba.com/SundaySchool/HZM/index.html)